The Joseph A. Caulder Collection
Past Rotary International Director 1928-29   -  Regina, Sask., Canada

"Eyewitness to Rotary International's First 50 Years"


JOSEPH A. CAULDER - An eyewitness to Rotary International's first 50 years.


Go to   [Pages C-1 - E-22]               [Pages F-1 - R-2 ]                 [Pages S-1 - end]

Internal Links

Home ] What's New in the Caulder Collection? ] Foreword by PRIVP Wilf Wilkinson ] Foreword by PRIT Tibor Gregor ] Joseph A. Caulder Biography ] Caulder's Combined Books Index ] Introduction, Book 1 ] Rotary Information, Book 1 ] [ Rotary Information, Book  2 ] Rotary Information, Book 3 ] Rotary Information, Book 4 ] Album 1-Table of Contents ] Album 1-Caulder's Foreword ] Album 1- RI Presidents ] Album 1-RI Gen. Secretaries ] Album 1-Early Notables ] Album 1-RI Treasurers ] Album 2 - Table of Contents ] Album 2 - Early RI Boards ] Album 2 - Canadian Area Vice Presidents ] Album 2 - Canadian R.I. Directors ] Album 2 - Notable Canadian Rotarians ] Album 2 - R.I.B.I. Presidents ] Album 2 - R.I.B.I. Secretaries ] Album 2 -  50th Anniversary of R.I. ] Album 2 - Caulder Articles on Early Rotary ] Quotes from Past RI Presidents ] Links to Other Important Rotary Sites ]

Page A. 1 (Pagination as in original)


By: Chesley R. Perry.

Foreword by J. A. Caulder.

(Ches. Perry joined Chicago No.1 January 1908. When the National Association was formed, August, 1910, Ches Perry was engaged on a part-time basis as Secretary of the National Association. Continued as Secretary of the National Association until1912 - then to the International Association of Rotary Clubs until 1922; and then Secretary of Rotary International 1922 until he retired June 30th, 1942 at the close of the Toronto International Convention of that year.)

It was in room 711 in what was then called the Unity Building, but later became, and now is known as 127 North Dearborn St., Chicago. It was some months prior to February 23rd, 1905 when Paul P. Harris, a young Chicago lawyer, and no doubt feeling lost in the great city of Chicago, discussed with a few of his close friends the question of forming club where they could meet for Fellowship and perhaps develop some business. The men who met in that small office on that February evening were: Paul P. Harris, lawyer; Silvester Schiele, coal merchant; Hiram Shorey, Tailor; and Gus Loehr, mining engineer.

Shorey and Loehr dropped out within a few weeks but others joined and admittedly these men who joined were largely composed of a group who were seeking to improve their business. The new, Club was called 'Rotary' because the plan was to meet in each other's offices after dinner each Thursday evening, or alternate Thursdays, as might be decided.

Quite early in the life of the Club these men decided on two Objects. No.1 - the promotion of the business interests of its members:

Page A. 2


No. 2, the promotion of good fellowship and other desiderata, ordinarily incidents of social clubs.

Most of the early members were young and struggling to get a start in business. Chicago was a large, rapidly growing and very wicked city in 1905. In that year Upton Sinclair published his book under the name of A The Jungle". This book plainly 'and frankly exposed .conditions existing in Chicago at that time and it made the author famous.

Paul Harris had graduated from Law in Iowa in 1891, after being raised by his grandparents in Wallingford, Vermont. He was born in Racine, Wisconsin, on April 19th, 1868. After graduating in Law in 1891 he spent five years seeing the world and getting to know people. When Paul Harris opened his law office he was more interested in helping some struggling widow or some young businessman than in amassing wealth. Later on in life, however, he attained a high standing in the legal profession in his own state and he represented the Illinois Bar Society at two or three world law conventions in Europe.

This young Club decided that there would only be one man from each type of business or profession in order that the Club should be a cross section of the community and also not dominated by any one group. Back in 1905 business competitors were usually enemies. The members of this Club soon began to talk

Page A. 3


about fellowship and about helping each other in business and they preached a very new gospel to the effect that the best way to be sure to get was to give. Soon in each there developed a desire to help each other in the business way. Paul Harris never denied the fact that in securing members the inducement of business benefit was an important point.

At one time the Chicago Rotarians expressed their thoughts in the following words:-

A The true Rotary spirit is not the selfish one of trying to see how much you can out of your fellow members, but the more altruistic one of trying to see how much benefit and good you can do for your fellow members. As each one tries to give business to someone else in the Club, he finds there is s law of compensation and his reward comes from the fact that someone else is giving business or influencing business to him.

Rotary does not necessarily require a direct exchange of business between two members. As each Rotarian undertakes to help his brother Rotarians without demanding a direct return from them, there is produced a condition for friendship and fellowship upon a higher plane than the usual selfish and sordid relationship of commercial life.

The first printed Roster of the Club listed 19 members. At the end of the first year 30 members; after few months it became necessary to hold their fortnightly meetings at hotels and restaurants.

Page A. 4


For the first couple of years this group of men went along with a song and fun period. It was not long until there was criticism of this group as they were looked upon as a self-centered and selfish bunch. Men who were refused membership declared the Club was a monopoly or a cartel. The members took this seriously and added a third Object to those above mentioned, as follows:

A The advancement of the best interests of Chicago, and the spreading of the spirit of civic pride and loyalty amongst its citizens".

In order to prove the Club was not a selfish one they put on a drive and raised the money to build a comfort station in the Chicago City Hall. This comfort station is still in use and goes down in history as Rotary's first community enterprize.

Members continued to advertise their Club as a unique one and the men used their memberships as a means of securing business, and at the same time made it clear that no member was obligated to give business, nor wield his influence in favor of his fellow members.

As the Club increased to 100 members and then 200 members, the plan was evolved of every member keeping a record of the business transacted with the other members of the Club. Soon these figures were surprisingly large. It was made clear at the Club that each man must operate his business in a way that would warrant the confidence not only of his fellow Rotarians, but of the general public.

Page A.5


In January 1908 two new members were brought into the Club. They were Chesley R. Perry who worked for the Chicago Public Library and Arthur Frederick Sheldon, who was the head of a very successful school of salesmanship.

In November 1908 one of the members brought to the regular Club meeting a lawyer from San Francisco named Mr. Homer Wood. The spirit of this Chicago Club interested him, and he went back to San Francisco and organized Rotary Club No.2. Then a dozen or more Clubs were organized during 1909 and 1910. Up to this time each Club carried on as its members saw fit. Each Club had its own Objects and By-laws but most of them followed the pattern of the Chicago Club No. 1. Seattle Club was No.4 and described the Club= s relationship to the community in the following language:-

1. "Each member is benefitted by actual contact with representative men engaged in widely different occupations thereby broadening his horizon, enlarging his point of view, and offsetting the narrowing tendencies of specialized pursuits. A true conception of that fusion of individual interests which constitutes public welfare is realized and each member is thereby enabled to more intelligently meet the responsibilities of civic and business life.

2. "The community is benefitted by the united and organized effort of its membership for public good. The basis of membership ensures the representation of all interests and domination of none in considerations of public questions".

Page A. 6


3. "Ethical standards in business are promoted and democracy between and among the several representatives occupations is produced with the attendant benefits to society.@

4. "The selection of a member to participate in the deliberations of this Club is an expression of the confidence of the Club in such member and of its goodwill toward him. As his business is an expression of himself, he is expected to represent his business, not submerge it, and by so doing he reaps much benefit as naturally and properly flows from, the enlarged acquaintance and from the recognition of his efficiency and integrity of which his selection to membership in this Club is evidence".

By 1910 it obvious that 16 Clubs then in existence should get together and form some kind of an association. This idea was carried out in August of 1910 and the National Association of Rotary Clubs was formed, with Paul P. Harris as President. It was decided that the secretariat would be established in Chicago and a Constitution and set of By-Laws were adopted; also the Objects of the Association were set out as follows:-

A l. To extend and develop Rotary principles by the organization of affiliating Rotary Clubs throughout America.

2. To unify the work and the principles of the affiliating Rotary Clubs and to promote their common good.

3. To arouse and encourage civic pride and loyalty.

Page A. 7


4. To promote progressive and honourable business methods.

5. To advance the business interests of the individual members of the affiliating Clubs@ .

It will be seen that the business idea was still retained but was placed at the bottom of the list instead of at the top. The Board of Directors refused to authorize the publication of a magazine lest it be used as a medium for controlling them. It was obvious each of these Clubs had a strong desire for individual freedom.

Ches. Perry was engaged as Secretary of this new National Association but on a part- time basis at $100.00 per month.

The second Convention was held in Portland, Oregon in 1911. At this Convention, Paul Harris was re-elected as president and the publication of a magazine was authorized.

(NOTE-in dictating this article I am adding some items not included in Ches. Perry's write-up which appeared in the February issue, 1955, which was Rotary 50th Anniversary. As an example; in his article he did not mention that he was engaged at $100 per month. (J.A.C.).

At this Convention in Portland, Oregon in 1911 Arthur Frederick Sheldon who had become a power in the organization, made an impassioned speech and wound up with the words, "He Profits Most Who Serves Best".

He was followed by Frank Collins, president of the Rotary Club of Minneapolis who, in

Page A. 8


his speech stated that the slogan of his Minneapolis Club was A Service Above Self.@

The third Convention of Rotary was held at Duluth in 1912. The title of "President Emeritus@ was conferred on Paul Harris. The cogwheel emblem was adopted, and also a model Constitution and By-laws for a Rotary Club, which was recommended to the Clubs for adoption with these Objects:

A 1. To promote the recognition of the worthiness of legitimate occupations and to dignify each member's occupation as affording him an opportunity to serve society.

2. To encourage high ethical standards in businesses and professions.

3. To increase the efficiency of each member by the exchange of ideas and business methods.

4. To promote the scientizing of acquaintance as an opportunity for service and an aid to success.

5. To quicken the interest of each member in the public welfare and to cooperate with others in civic development."

At the Duluth Convention two delegates appeared from the new Rotary Club of Winnipeg, Manitoba which had been organized in November 1910. It was pointed out that the name "National Association@ did not fit now and, in a few moments by a motion from the floor, the name was changed to the A International Association of Rotary Clubs". Winnipeg was

Page A. 9


the first club outside of' the U.S.A. A few months later, early in 1911, the Dublin Club had been formed. It was decided that Canada and Britain and Ireland become divisions of the Association with a Vice President in charge of each and these Vice Presidents properly have been called Area Vice Presidents. The clubs in the U.S.A.. were divided into five divisions each with a Vice President in charge. The Board consisted of five Directors, all from the U.S.A.

In 1913 a Tornado in Nebraska caused tremendous damage and the Secretary of one Rotary Club was killed. About the same time there were serious floods in Ohio and at once, the Rotary Clubs of the United States and Canada got together and raised considerable sums of money to aid the grief-stricken areas.

The fourth Convention was held in Buffalo in 1913 and there was great joy over the arrival of a delegation of eight men from Britain and Ireland. These men took a very active part in the Convention and afterwards visited a number of Clubs in the United States. Soon the U.S. members were visiting Rotary Clubs in the British Isles. Friendly relations were developed between clubs in Canada and the U.S. The Toronto Club was organized November 28th, 1912 and its representatives took a very active part in the Buffalo Convention of 1913.

It was decided that the Clubs in Britain and Ireland would pay a per capita tax of one shilling which then was twenty-five cents. The Canada and U.S. per capita tax was $1.00 per member.

Page A. 10


In the Fall of 1913 the office of the Inter national Association of Rotary Club in Chicago heard that the eight or nine Clubs in England and Ireland and Scotland had formed the National Association for the British Isles known as B.A.R.C., or British Association of Rotary Clubs. This caused much concern in the headquarters at Chicago.

(NOTE-At the Portland Convention in 1911 Ches. Perry had been hired as Secretary on a full time basis. In January 1911 Secretary Perry and Paul Harris, without any authority, had started a magazine called "The National Rotarian@ . The first issue came out in Jan. 1911. There were to be six issues a year. and the cost was 254 per year. (J.A.C.).

The 1914 Convention was held at Houston, Texas and at that convention the British Rotary organization was officially recognized and the hope was expressed that they would give up their own National Association and join the International Association on an equal basis. The situation was worsened by the delay of the United States of America entering World War I, and by the fact that the 1915 re-organization of the Board of Directors of the International Association did not include a Director from the British Isles. It looked at this time like an almost complete break and that there might be two Rotary organizations around the world. It took many long years to correct this situation. In 1914,. there was real money problems and an appeal went to the Rotary Clubs in Canada and U.S.A. to make a contribution so that the Association could carry on. All Clubs in America responded promptly. Then the Clubs in Britain and Ireland insisted

Page A. 11


upon making their contribution and at this time the Association was placed on a sound financial basis.

Intercity meetings of Rotary Clubs were first encouraged officially in 1914. All Clubs were asked to celebrate the anniversary of Rotary by holding an inter-city meeting with some other club on February 23rd. About this time the Rotarians of Belfast journeyed to Dublin for a friendly inter-city meeting. Anyone who is familiar with the conditions existing between North and South Ireland at that time will realize that this meeting made history.

The great World War had broken out in Germany in 1914 and the Rotary Clubs of Britain and Ireland did a tremendous job during the next five years.

By this time the weekly noonday lunch had become established practice, although a good many Clubs continued to meet in the evening. Through the efforts of Paul Harris, founder, the use of first names became standard practice. There was a strong feeling in Rotary at that time that the business promotion idea should be dropped and by 1915 or 1916 it had almost entirely disappeared.

(NOTE - As late as 1915, however, when the late Howard Feighner was the Secretary of the Rotary club of San Francisco, it was his duty when the members were seated for lunch to go out to the checkroom and see if any member had bought a hat from anyone other than the Rotary member who held that classification. B J.A.C.

Page A. 12


In the early days it was decided that no Club would be organized in a city of less than 500,000 population. Then the figure was set at 100,000 and later it was lowered 50,000 and later to 25,000.

It became customary for the members visiting cities where there was no Rotary Club for these men to call on businessmen in the same profession they were in. This led to the organization of many new Clubs.

At the 1913 Convention there. was a demand for the adoption of a Code of Ethics for businessmen of all lines. A Committee was formed to draft such a Code and to present it at the 1914 Convention to be held at Houston, Texas. It was presented at the Houston Convention but actually was adopted at the San Francisco Convention in 1915, and read as follows:

A My business standards shall have in them a note of sympathy for our common humanity. My business dealings, ambitions, and relations shall always cause me to take into consideration my highest duties as a member of society. In every position in business life, in every responsibility that comes before me, my chief thought shall be to fill that responsibility and discharge that duty so that, when I have ended each of them, I shall have lifted the level of human ideals and achievements a little higher than I found it".

This was followed by a statement of 11 duties accepted by Rotarians with regard to their conduct as businessmen.

Page A. 13


It was obvious that the growth of Rotary and the development of these ideas was having a reaction on North American businessmen at this time. Business slogans such as A Let The Buyer Beware" or "The Public be Damned" were gradually being changed to one of service. In the next few years a great many organizations of business and professional men adopted Codes of Business Practice.

At the San Francisco Convention in 1915 it was again definitely reaffirmed that it was important in Rotary to limit the membership to one man from each business or profession. It was now firmly established that the only business that a Rotarian should expect from another Rotarian was business dealings that might follow acquaintance, the development of friendship and confidence. It was also stated that Rotary Clubs should combine, not nationally but internationally, and should develop a broader conception of the meaning and the application of service in business. Rotarians should have a standard for business practices and would extend this beyond the confines of the Rotary members.

The growth of the Rotary movement without paid organizers was phenomenal. In August 1910 when the National Association was formed there were 16 Clubs; in 1911 - 28; in 1912 - 50; in 1913 - 83; in 1914 - 125; and in 1915 - 186. The membership went up from 1,800 in 1910 to 3,000 in 1911; 5,000 in 1912; 10,000 in 1913; 14,500 in 1914; and 20,700 in 1915.

I must come to the end of the first ten years of Rotary's existence. For the first four years the original clubs in American cities operated with a crude effort to combine

Page A. 14


business desire for money profits then gradually changed to the idea of being helpful to someone, and gradually learning that the satisfaction of rendering service to someone is more to be desired than the satisfaction of money profit. In the fifth year the idea of the Golden Rule became a part of Rotary's existence. At the end of the first ten years with 180 Clubs in existence with over 20,000 members that exemplified the value of business and professionalmen getting together for personal, community and International service, great strides have been made in raising the standards of business. Paul Harris, the first President was succeeded by Glen Mead of Philadelphia, lawyer; then Russell Greener of Kansas City, Missouri; then Frank Mulholland of Toledo, Ohio, another lawyer; then Allen D. Albert of Minneapolis. All these men made tremendous contributions to the development of Rotary and to inter-club, inter-state and inter-nation understanding.


NOTE - Condensed from the original article in The Rotarian of February 1955 - page 8.

Page B. 1


By: Dr. Crawford C. McCullough of Ft. William, Ontario, Canada - President of R.I. 1921-22.

The Rotarian March 1955.

The Rotarians of the year 1915-16 knew that Rotary had come a very long way from its precarious beginnings of only a decade back. The nearly 200 Clubs in the U.S.A., Canada, Britain and Ireland, as has been said, were already providing:-

"a remarkable demonstration of how men could embrace ideas of democratic fellowship and procedure, of constructive co-operation, of thoughtfulness of and helpfulness to others, of raising standards of business, and other contacts of men, and as God-loving and neighbor--loving men; they could exemplify the soundness of the Golden Rule in their thinking and acting as members of the human race".

Rotary, through the first ten years, had been finding its feet and at the time was well on to setting an enduring course. There was still some uncertainty of the direction.

At the 1916 Convention Paul P. Harris said:-.

    Rotary is a voluntary association of businessmen chosen according to a process designed to eliminate competition and dedicated to the development in each member of a new capability for service. . . Rotary limits membership to procure the widest range of ambassadors to every calling. . . Ideals find new

Page B. 2


"consecration to translate our words into deeds. . . Rotary has passed out of the impalpable and indefinite period into a period that is definite and desirable

The 1915 committee report on Philosophy end Education was publicized in booklet form as "A Talking Knowledge of Rotary." This was a reasoned statement of the philosophy underlying four fundamental Rotary Aims:-

The betterment of the individual.

Of his Business.

Of his Craft.

Of his Home, Community and Country.

This statement of purpose immediately acquired a place in Rotary literature and in succeeding years gained acceptance as a basic document.

At the beginning of the second ten year period, two years of the agony of World War I had been endured and the Rotary Clubs of the British Isles and Canada had made a tremendous effort of service.

In these early days and years at Club meetings, District Conferences and annual Conventions, there was always sounded solid Rotary messages. There was plenty of plain fun and plenty of fellowship. Dignity was depressed, the starchy unbent, the pompous were deflated and this went to toward creating an enduring Rotary fellowship. The Rotarian who lost his membership because of removal to another city or a change of vocation,

Page B. 3


missed his Rotary friendships very much. However, the classification principle was the bedrock on which membership was built and must not be tempered with.

A plan was adopted whereby the Clubs would report their attendance records to the District Governor. He would pass these records on to the President and this was the start of the Monthly Attendance Contest.

By 1917 the United States had entered the war on the side of the Allies. The repercussion upon Rotary was immediate and profound. Relations with the British Association of Rotary Clubs ceased to worsen; a motion that had been presented

at the British Association to secede from the International Association was defeated. Rotarians every where experienced a sense of unity not hitherto approached. The Rotary International Board set up a National War Service Committee for the U.S.A. to work in close liaison with the Government and to co-ordinate the war efforts of the American Clubs.

In 1917 the Convention held at Atlanta, Georgia was essentially a "win the war" demonstration. The patriotic fervor was intense. In his address, President Emeritus

Harris said:-

"Rotary is greater than anyone man in it, or any single Club; it is not a local movement, nor is it a national movement, but a world force. . .(when war ends) we shall face our greatest opportunity by bringing into the folds of Rotary

Page B. 4


"the flags of every civilized nation throughout the world. 0nce and for all stamp out the assertion that Rotary in any degree sanctions the use of a membership for selfish purposes."

At this 1917 Convention at Atlanta, Georgia Rotarians from Cuba made their first appearance at a convention. The Rotary Club of Havana, Cuba was organized in 1916.

Without any very definite planning, over the years, community service become a chief activity of the Clubs. It had been agreed that as a general proposition a Rotary Club

should undertake those community services that cannot be done as well by other existing organizations.

Work among boys also had become a very important Club activity and about this date there was pressure being brought to bear for Rotary Clubs undertake work with crippled children. At this Atlanta, Georgia convention in 1917, President Arch C. Klumph of Cleveland had proposed the creation of Rotary Endowment to supplement funds "directed to the extension of Rotary worldwide and for other constructive and humanitarian purposes. The story of this proposal is told elsewhere.

At this Convention Guy Gundaker of Philadelphia had been proposed for President, but Guy was interested in a very large café in Philadelphia known as Kuglers. It was owned by Guy’s father-in-law and Guy, although a lawyer, had a good deal to do

Page B. 5


with the operation of this café. This restaurant in dispensing meals also sold beer and wine. Consequently for the second time nomination of Guy Gundaker for the Presidency of Rotary International was turned down. The Convention turned to Rev. E. Leslie Pidgeon, an outstanding Presbyterian Minister from Winnipeg, Manitoba and he was elected president and served Rotary well. This was the first President chosen from outside the United States.

Rotary was growing rapidly. Headquarters staff in Chicago had to be increased and as a consequence the dues were raised from $1.00 per member per year to $2.00 in Canada, the United States and Cuba; elsewhere 50˘ per year with the exception of Britain and Ireland where each Club would pay an, annual fee of $10.00.

B.A.R.C.. (British Association of Rotary Clubs) continued to develop independently of the International Association of Rotary Clubs, and there was little if any liaison between the two organizations. As a matter of fact, contact had almost ceased to exist, but this was in part due to the fact that all Rotarians in the British Isles were heavily emerged in war duties. At this time a proposal was made that a delegation of high standing Rotarians visit Britain for consultations with B.A.R.C. This proposal was not carried out but at the following Convention the Board advised that such a visit was imperative.

Page B. 6


Up until time of the San Francisco Convention in 1915 the Rotary world had been divided into eight zones; 5 in the U.S.A.; 2 in Canada and 1 in Britain. At that convention, however, the zones were dropped, the Area. Vice-Presidents were dropped, and Districts were organized.

At the time of the 1918 Convention in Kansas City, Missouri World War I was reaching a climax and men's thoughts were now projecting into days of permanent peace. The theme of the Convention was "Rotary, a Living Force".

Many Rotarians claim that the 1918 Convention was the greatest ever. The world was hanging in the balance. No one could come from England to the U.S. or Canada without special permission from the military authorities. However, the standing of Rotary was such that the Government allowed Home Morton and Tom Stephenson to come over and attend the Kansas City Convention. Everyone should read what happened at that convention when Ashby Jones of North Carolina presented a beautiful silk flag to the two British delegates and they in return presented a small cotton Union Jack to Rotary International. The President and Secretary of B.A.R.C., the top two above mentioned, participated in all the convention proceedings.

At this Convention the Constitution and Bylaws were revised. The International Board could change the boundaries of Districts (but not over the objection of three-quarters of the Clubs in any District). A Foreign Extension Committee was authorized to est-

Page B. 7


ablish additional Clubs throughout Latin America. During the war the number of Clubs in Britain and Ireland had increased from 8 to 24. The revolution and the counter revolution in Russia spread a threatening ideology throughout the Western World.

In November 1918 the great war came to a dramatic end in victory for the Allies. The problems of reconstruction now had to be faced. The Foreign Extension Committee of

Rotary was renamed the Extension Committee. The word "foreign" was dropped from Rotary literature.

In Chicago a two day conference of members of the International Board and all District Governors was the beginning of what was called "The International Council" - later known as the International Assembly.

Boys work was beginning to bloom and continued to bloom during this ten year period, with Clubs sponsoring great street parades, etc. This boys work movement was very active in the vicinity of Elmira, New York.

In the Rotary year 1918-19 a strong delegation was sent to England to discuss Rotary' s future with the British Association. The following Convention held in Salt Lake City in June 1919 had both delegations report at length and pointed out the difficulties in the way of re-integration, and also pointed out how the barriers to success might be overcome. In 1919 in Winnipeg there was a general strike called which paralyzed the

Page B. 8


city and it became obvious that this strike was Communist inspired. The world was facing a new. situation. This strike was at its worst during the holding of the Salt Lake

City Convention and for the first time the people in North America began to take Communism seriously.

At this convention a committee was appointed to study the bilateral rights and obligations of labour and management, and in particular the question of voluntary versus compulsory arbitration.

At this convention also there was a Rotarian by the name of Dr. Charles E. Barker of Grand Rapids, Michigan. He made an address, entitled "A Father's Responsibility to His Son", and "A Mother's Responsibility to Her Daughter."

The convention was held in the great Mormon Tabernacle at Salt Lake City. Before Dr. Barker started his address all the ladies. in the audience were asked to take a seat in the gallery and the men occupied the floor. Dr. Barker dealt with subjects not publicly discussed in the year 1919. As a result of this speech by Dr. Barker he was immediately engaged by Rotary to spend his entire time talking to audiences everywhere about these personal family matters. He continued in 'this fine work for many years.

Rotarians in Canada had petitioned for a Canadian Advisory Committee to whom the Board could refer matters of national importance to the Clubs of Canada for study,

Page B. 9


advice and report to the Board and their request was granted.

(NOTE-The Canadian Advisory Committee was allowed to die a natural death at the close of the rotary year 1957-58. . C. F. Basil Tippet was the last Chairman in the Rotary year 1957-58. Many Rotarians in Canada regretted to see it out of existence but it was a source of embarrassment to Rotary International because other countries also wanted an Advisory Committee and the spread of such committee work might lead into nationalism in Rotary. (J.A.C.)

At this time a Department of Boys Work was established in the Secretariat with a full time Secretary in charge. At the end of the year the Rotary Club of New York organized and carried through to a successful conclusion the first "Boys Week."

In May 1920 two Past presidents of the International Association of Rotary Clubs accompanied by Secretary Perry, made a trip to England to carry on further discussions with reference to bringing the two organizations more closely together. As a result, at the 1920 convention held at Atlantic City 8 delegates and several ladies from Britain and Ireland were in attendance and brought with them a petition from B.A.R.C. to hold the 1921 convention of the International Association in Edinburgh, Scotland.

At this Atlantic City Convention there were 7,200 present. 87 1/2% of all Clubs in the world were represented. The theme of the convention was "Rotary's World Mission".

Page B. 10


The following statement was written to the records: -

"Political governments are endeavoring to establish a League of Nations which will ensure permanent peace. Rotary’s contribution to the success (of this objective) is and will continue to be, a sound foundation, and that shall be a League of Men".

At this Atlantic City convention a warning was sounded that many Rotary Clubs were engaging in far too objective activities and were in danger of becoming Philanthropic organizations.

The International Association was again faced with money problems. The per capita dues were increased from $2.00 to $3.00 per year, except that the B.A.R.C. per capita" tax would be $1.00 per year per member in place of $10.00 per club. The annual subscription paid for the magazine was increased from $1.00 to $1.50 per year.

At this convention the Committee on Constitution and By-laws was directed to prepare and present at the 1921 convention a draft of a new instrument designed to secure worldwide consolidation of the Rotary movement.

The invitation to hold the 1921 convention in Edinburgh was accepted. This was a tremendous undertaking at that time, with the Association very short of working funds. On May 31st, 1921 the Rotary Argosy sailed from

Page B.11


New York carrying a capacity passenger list of 1100 Rotarians and their ladies in two ships. Farewell messages were received from the President of the United States of America; the Governor of the State of New York; and the British Consul General in New York. On the pier hundreds of Rotarians and friends were calling their farewells and good wishes. It was a moving experience and a wonderful spectacle. .

One ship disembarked at Liverpool and the other at Glasgow. The welcomes by Civic authorities and Rotarians were marked by enthusiasm and warm hospitality. It was a memorable convention. In fact, it was epochal.

His Majesty the King sent a personal message of welcome to all Rotarians and at the opening session the President said:

"This convention is the culmination of all that has gone before in the growth of International Rotary. This convention is Rotary's greatest opportunity. It gives promise of being Rotary's greatest achievement. Rotary is not only an international but pan-national spirit. Our responsibility is to accomplish its liberation in every nation".

The message from President Emeritus, Paul Harris, was as follows:

"Yesterday our Rotary was a child; today in strength and vigor it steps out into the world while we who rocked its cradle

Page B. 12.


find fascination in the spectacle".

The Committee on Constitution and By-Laws carried out its work as directed by the 1920 convention and had prepared a draft of a new instrument for the International Association of Rotary Clubs. This had been sent well in advance to all Clubs the world over. The Club reaction on the whole was not favourable. This 1921 convention provided for an enlarged and more representative committee of 31, with 4 members appointed by the president of the International Association; 3 by B.A.R.C., and one to be chosen at each District Conference. This committee was to draft a Constitution and By-Laws to be submitted to the 1922 convention at Los Angeles. This was of course a big disappointment.

In 1921 the Board had taken an option to purchase land in Chicago for the purpose of building a permanent home for Rotary headquarters. The convention refused to authorize the purchase. At this Convention a 6th and new Object of Rotary was adopted. It was "International Service".

The design for the official emblem, namely a wheal with six spokes and 24 cogs and a keyway, was adopted. For the second time in history, a Canadian citizen and a British subject, was elected as President at the International Association of Rotary Clubs.

Page B.13


After the convention there followed a week of entertainment and official receptions in London. The newly elected President and Members of the Board visited clubs in Britain and Ireland. The officers and members of the Boards of I. A. of R. C. and B.A.R.C. and other international representative Rotarians were received by Their Majesties, the King and Queen, at Buckingham Palace in an audience noteworthy for its gracious and easy informality. Then followed a visit to France as guests of the newly organized Rotary Club of Paris. The President and Officers and Directors were received at the Elysees Palace by the President of the Republic. At a largely attended civil and military ceremony at The Arch of Triumph, the International President, on behalf of all Rotary, presented to the General Commanding the military forces of the Paris District, a permanent bronze plaque in tribute to the valor and glory of French arms. There was also a well attended and thrilling celebration of the 4th of July (U.S. Independence Day) at the Chateau Thierry and Belleau Wood. .

In 0ctober of that year an impressive ceremony was held at Arlington, Virginia at the Grave of the Unknown Soldier of the U.S.A. A memorial tablet was presented by Rotary International, and in November of the same year a similar ceremony was held at Westminster Abbey at the Tomb of the Unknown Soldier.

In November 1921 the special committee of 31 met in Chicago and after a week long

Page B. 14.


deliberation completed the draft of a new Constitution and By-laws based upon the six principles recommendation at the Edinburgh Convention.

At this time the large districts were divided into a number of smaller districts in order to ease the administrative burden.

Following the war business uncertainty and unemployment, and owing to general economic dislocation, Rotary Clubs found many community needs which they helped to fill by personal and collective service. In the spring of l922 the Rotary Club of New York launched and financed a Poster Campaign for Prosperity financed by members of the Rotary Club of New York, with the outdoor advertising concerns of the U.S. and Canada. It is believed that this was a very successful venture.

The Committee on Business Methods instituted a drive to use the ambassadorship of club members to their respective crafts and professional organizations to induce the writing and adoption of Codes of Ethical Standards of Business and Professional practice. Very great success followed this effort.

In 1922 the convention was held in Los Angeles, California. The name International Association of Rotary Clubs was shortened to Rotary International.

Page B. 15


From the President’s address: -

"If the glory of success we should forsake the paths of humility, forgetting the values which Rotary creates are more spiritual than material, we shall steer a course that will eventually wreck our treasure ship upon the rocks of opportunism.

The primary force to carry Rotary ideals into action is the unit Rotary Club. Rotary, the great movement, has now and needs but the simplest form of organization . . . enough only to ensure such cohesion of all unit Clubs and such concert of action . . . as will project its principles into the social and economic life of all nations".

The Chairman of the Committee of 31 had attended the Conference of B.A.R.C. where he secured approval of the draft prepared by the Committee. On the afternoon of the first day of the Los Angeles Convention the final, draft was adopted for the new Constitution and By-law without change. This was an historic act and a great occasion; not only did the International Association of Rotary Clubs become "Rotary International", but the British Association of Rotary Clubs ceased to exist and there came into existence in the British Isles, Rotary International Association for Great Britain and Ireland, to be known as R.I.B.I.

At this time the pressure to have Rotary

Page B. 16


International adopt as its main work the backing of the Crippled Children's' Assoc. was on, but very wisely the convention decided against this recommendation. It was the feeling at that time that humanity work should be the prerogative of the individual Rotary Club.

The new committee know as Business Methods had difficulty in making headway because of its name. The men were hesitant about making suggestions relative to Business Methods because there was a feeling that they were setting themselves up as something special. Later the name Business Methods was dropped and Vocational Service came into use.

In 1923 the convention was held at St. Louis, Missouri. At that Convention President Harding of the United States was the outstanding speaker, followed by Past Prime Minister of Canada, The Rt. Hon. Arthur Meighen.

History was made at this convention when the famous "Resolution 34" was prepared by Rotarian Will Manier. This Resolution reaffirmed activities and formulated certain principles for the guidance of Rotary International and Rotary clubs. From this date on it was definite that every Rotary Club should have its own choice of philanthropic activity.

Page B. 17


In August 1923 the Outline of Classifications was published and distributed to the Clubs. This great work done principally by Arthur Pierce of Pittsburgh.

In September of 1923 a large amount of money was raised and sent to the Rotary Club of Tokyo, Japan to help alleviate distress resulting from the devastating hurricane and tidal wave.

In the spring of 1924 the President of Rotary International officially attended the conference of R.I.B.I.

In 1924 the convention was held in Toronto. This was the first to be held in Canada. At this convention International President Guy Gundaker of Philadelphia was near the close of his very successful year as President. He said the following:

"A world fellowship, while necessarily contingent on the successful establishment of Rotary in all nations of the world, is likewise contingent on the correctness of all standards of business practice of the men privileged to enter that fellowship".

Another quote from a Past Vice President of Rotary International was as follows:

"Rotary is an attempt to accomplish worldwide good by placing on the individual his full responsibility for conditions within his reach."

Page B. 18


At this convention there was a proposal to provide for a Deliberative and Legal Body of not more than 200, composed of members elected by and at the District Conferences on an equitable basis as to the number of Clubs and Rotary members, to meet annually and legislation necessary to the government of R.I.; to provide for two year terms (staggered) for Directors of R.I. and for a measure - was rejected.

In 1925 a branch office of the Central Secretariat was opened Zurich, Switzerland. This was to serve Continental Europe, North Africa and the Near East. At Cleveland, Ohio the 1925 convention opened with a magnificent pageant. At this convention there were large attended Assemblies on business methods, education in Rotary, boys work, and crippled childrens work. For the first time the attendance at the convention exceeded 10,000. The Board of Directors was increased from ten members to twelve and the twelve included three from those areas of Rotary International other than United States, Canada, Great Britain and Ireland.

In November 1925 the first meeting of Club Executives of Continental Europe was convened in Brussels, Belgium with the Secretary of Rotary International presiding. This meeting recommended the establishment of a European Advisory Committee. This committee has served Rotary well during the intervening years.

Page B. 19


At the beginning of this decade in Rotary, and with only 200 clubs in existence, the decade ended with more than 2000, clubs. The Districts had increased from 19 to 49.

At the beginning of 1916 six nations of political divisions comprised the Rotary family of nations. At the close of 1925 there were 36 in the family and Rotary now encircled the globe!

The proposal made by Arch Klumph at the Atlanta, Georgia convention in 1917, although accepted by Rotary in that year and the years that followed, made very little headway, and in fact, at the end of the second decade almost looked like a failure. However, in later years, it became a great success.

Each year there was discussion a permanent home for Rotary but each year the conservative element at the convention defeated the proposal as it was felt the organization was not in financial condition to carry it through.

The schism which at one stage threatened to divide the Rotary movement into at least two and potentially more parts, was, after long travail, dissipated, and consolidated unity secured for Rotary.

The official emblem had been redesigned in order to have it correct mechanically and the design was registered against infringement.

The International Assembly originally named the International Council, was conceived and created.

Page B. 20.


The excess in the field of community service which had once threatened Rotary's future, with a mass runaway into paternalism and philanthropy, were halted and objective activities put into true perspective through the adoption, in St. Louis, in 1923 of Resolution 34.

The second decade of Rotary’s existence was remarkable for rapid growth; sustained. enthusiasm, and steadfast pursuit of a great idea. A rediscovered concept of the meaning of "Service," but equally for a flaming belief the Rotary content was essentially of the spirit, the world's greatest need in that era of disillusionment and careless acceptance of unproved, theoretical doctrines, of political, economic, social, and spiritual impact.

Rotary, to the average Club, and to the average member was not so much an organization as it was a movement wherein diversity of vocation, close companionship and fellowship gave space and incentive for development of the individual to the height of willing and happy acceptance of "his full responsibility for conditions within his reach". It will always be as simple as that!

NOTE: During this 10 year period the Presidents were: Allan D. Albert of Minneapolis - professor; Arch C. Klumph of Cleveland - lumber dealer; E. Leslie Pigeon of

Page B. 2l


Winnipeg - a Presbyterian Minister; John Poole of Washington, D.C. - a banker; Albert S. Adams of Atlanta, Georgia - real estate dealer; Estes Snedecor of Portland, Oregon - a lawyer;. Dr. Crawford C. McCullough of Ft. Williams. - Eye, Ear, Nose and Throat; Raymond M. Havens of Kansas City, Missouri - lithographers; Guy Gundaker of Philadelphia, Pa. - lawyer and restaurant manager; Everett W. Hill of Oklahoma City - refrigeration; and Donald A. Adams of New Haven, Conn. - insurance law.


This decade saw some of the great Presidents of Rotary International bring the organization through a very difficult period. To Arch Klumph's credit is due for the present astonishingly successful Rotary Foundation. Perhaps it is fair to say that Dr. Crawford C. McCullough of Ft. William, who became Governor of the 19th District in the Rotary year 1919-20, a member of the Board of R.I. the following year, also Vice President; and in the year 1921-22 president of Rotary Intern’l. stands out as one of the great presidents of all time, and particularly of that decade. He was Vice-President of R.I. in 1921 when the convention was held in Edinburgh and presided as President at the Los Angeles convention in 1922. He took the lead in rewriting and again rewriting the Constitution and By-Laws of R.I. He made many trips to England and did much to bring the two associations together. Now in 1962, Crawford is still with us, but in poor health - not able to take an active part in Rotary International

Page B. 22


affairs, except by continuing a tremendous correspondence covering Rotary friends and well wishes the world over.


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -


AND OUTGO 1911 and 1961-1962


For year ended June 30/11-cash receipts $2,617.38 for a cash surplus of $44.38. This was the Treasurer's, Report but Secy. Perry reported cash income $2,899.26 and outgo 32,854.88 for a balance of $44.38,however, there were unpaid ,bills of $711.50. Secy. Perry was to get $1,209. per year on a part time basis but really only got $428.40, and he never did get the unpaid salary for that 1st year. It is worth noting that, the President's expenses were $111.79, 1st Vice P. $2.50, 2nd Vice P. $1.75. At this convention Ches. Perry was engaged on a full time basis at $1,800. per year and from then on Perry’s salary was paid in full. Now we turn to the report for year ended June 30,1962 and we find total income $3,184,907.61 with expenses of $2,992,635.16 for a net surplus of $192,272.45, and including The Rotarian and Revista Rotario an income of $1,190,285.95 making a total income of $4,305,193.56 and a total net of $244,098.30.

A most remarkable development.



Copyright© Daniel W. Mooers

Rotary® and Rotary International® are registered trademarks of Rotary International